Fraktur (German Letter) is a marriage between German cursive scripts and Textura Quadrata Manuscript examples of the hand date from 1400 and it first appeared as typeface about a century later. Early type versions of Fraktur, and it´s more cursive, vernacular cousin Schwabacher, remained  close to their pen-written origins. They were designed by the leading German calligraphers of the day, including Johann Neudorffer the Elder. The two scripts continued to influence calligraphy and type design until the mid- 20th century, and had a formative influence on the work of eminent practitioner Rudolf Koch (opposite)

 (David Harris in The art of calligraphy. A practical guide to skill and techniques p.74, Dorling Kindersley, New York.)



Although many of the strokes are cursive compared with the Quadrate, the compress proportions of the letter remain similar. Generally, the greater the number of pens lifts, the more elegant the letter. Wherever possible ensure that the very fine lead-in strokes overlap. Skating strokes are also used.

(David Harris in The Calligraphers´s Bible. 100 complete alphabets and how to draw them p. 118, Barron´s. China.)